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University Library Zurich

Publication Types

1. Newspaper or journal or online platform?

Journal means a scientific or specialist journal. The specialist journal may be aimed at a non-scientific audience.

  • Example 1: Der Beobachter is not a journal but a newspaper.
  • Example 2: Das Magazin, the journal of the University of Zurich, is a journal. Contributions are recorded in ZORA if they are written by researchers of the University of Zurich.
  • Example 3: Die Reformierte Presse is a weekly newspaper with its own ISSN and the articles are recorded as "Newspaper Article" in ZORA.
  • Example 4: facultativ : Magazinbeilage zur Reformierten Presse is a journal supplement published by the Faculty of Theology of UZH. It would probably be considered a journal.
  • Example 5: Tangram, the Bulletin of the Federal Commission against Racism, is probably more of a scientific or specialist journal.
  • Example 6: Der Scientific American is a journal aimed at a non-scientific audience.

In the case of online platforms such as publications by federal offices, it is sometimes unclear whether this is a journal, a newspaper or a platform. To be included in ZORA, there should be an archive structure, and the individual articles should be citable with bibliographic data, not just a URL. Not all platforms comply with this. If in doubt, the ZORA editors will leave the submitter declaration (Journal Article, Newspaper Article, Book Section) and accept the article.
Alternatively, online platforms can be included as "Scientific Publication in Electronic Form" or as "Published Research Report".

Newspapers include weekly newspapers. Sometimes submitters refer to newspapers as journals. This must then be corrected. If the corresponding newspaper is not listed in the guidelines, the submission will be rejected from ZORA. If you are unsure, please ask the central ZORA editorial office.

2. When is a work an "original work" or a "further contribution"?

Generally considered as "further contribution":

  • Letter to the editors
  • Reviews, book reviems
  • Editorial / lead article
  • Overview article
  • Review, minireview
  • Preview
  • Commentary
  • Reader's letter

Such designations can be seen on the publisher's publication website or in databases like PubMed.
In the case of book reviews, it is mentionned in the title as follows: "Book review of: ...", "Review of: ...", "Book review of: ..." or similar. This way it is clear that it is a "further contribution" and the article appears in the correct chapter in the academic report.

In case of doubt, the ZORA editors will leave the submitter's information as it is.

3. What does the statement about "conference items" mean?

ZORA states: Full articles only; no abstracts, no posters, no PowerPoint presentations. If a conference contribution is published in a book or a scientific journal, it is submitted to ZORA as a book chapter or journal article - at the time of publication as a book chapter or journal article. Contributions in proceedings are submitted as "Conference Contribution, Proceedings".

If the conference contribution is published as a book chapter or journal article, it can be submitted as such in ZORA, i.e. as publication type book section or article in scientific journal at the time of publication in this form. Contributions to proceedings and contributions published only on the conference platform can be submitted as conference contribution, proceedings. The information of the submitters will not be changed by the ZORA editorial office, because in the different disciplines the publication types (conference or book) are weighted differently.

4. How should psychological tests and test manuals be submitted to ZORA?

The decisive factor is the form in which these psychological tests/test manuals were published by the publisher:

  •     as an article in a journal
  •     as part of a book
  •     as a contribution to a conference/workshop

Psychological tests/test manuals usually have the size of a book or a long book chapter - this depends on the construct for which the test was developed - and are always (and exclusively) published separately in this form, as for example with Hogrefe.

5. Does ZORA accept "responses to letters to the editor", "comments to the editors", etc.?

Yes, if they were published in one of the publication types in the guide, typically as a journal article or book section. They are usually considered "further contribution", not "original article". If the submitter indicates "non-refereed", even if the journal as such is considered refereed, the ZORA editors leave this indication (non-refereed). Reason: such publications are in fact often non-refereed, even if they appear in a refereed journal.

6. Is it mandatory to upload the full text (PDF) in ZORA for a dissertation or a habilitation?

The University of Zurich obliges its researchers to deposit a complete version of all published scientific works in ZORA with Open Access, provided that there are no legal obstacles to this.

If the dissertation is additionally published as a journal article  or as a monograph, this can result in two entries in ZORA. Once as type "Dissertation" and a second time depending on the publication form "Monograph" or "Journal Article" (see also FAQ Duplicates: point 4). The deposit of full texts for "Monographs" or "Journal Articles" depends on the respective publishing contract.

For dissertations, please refer to the Handout (PDF, 221 KB)(14/04/2020).

7. How do you record a lexicon entry in three different languages in ZORA?

As a single item, with one language in the "Title" field and the two other languages in the "Other Title" field. All three languages can be selected under "Language".

8. Can preprints from the ArXiv, bioRxiv, PsyArXiv, SocArXiv or SSRN platforms that have not yet appeared in any journal be included on ZORA?

Publications on arXiv, BioRxiv, SocArXiv or SSRN can be recorded as "Working Paper" in ZORA.

arXiv is a preprint archive primarily for physics, mathematics, computer science, and related sciences. Operated by Cornell University.

bioRxiv is an archive for open access preprints in the life sciences, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.

PsyArXiv is an open access preprint archive in psychology. The Society for the Improvement of Psychological Science maintains this archive. It is developed by the Center of Open Science (COS).

SocArXiv is an open archive in the social sciences for preprints, working papers, and other issues. It is operated by the University of Maryland and developed by the Center of Open Science (COS).

The Social Science Research Network (SSRN) is a website and document server for rapid dissemination of research papers in the social sciences, humanities, humanities, and economics.

9. Is a yearbook a journal or a book series?

Yearbooks are collected in ZORA as a book series, so the individual contributions are "book sections".

10. Is a Case Report (medical case) an "original work" or a "further contribution"?

Case reports are sometimes difficult to classify between "original work" and "further contribution" because they are actually a content category of their own, but not listed in ZORA. Many submitters specify "original work." Unless they are really short contributions. There are half-page case reports that consist of one image and five lines of text.  These cannot be "original work", so they are "other contributions".

Definition of original work from the guide: An original paper is a complete presentation of a new scientific finding as opposed to review articles, editorials, reviews, etc.

In case of doubt, the ZORA editorial office will not change the submitter's information.

11. What is a Scientific Publication in Electronic Form?

The criteria for this type of publication are:

  •     scientific
  •     published (by a publisher or on a publisher-like platform, i.e. website).

The format of these publications is open; they can be audiovisual contributions, for example, or published CD-ROMs or similar.
Television or radio contributions can also be included under this publication type, provided they meet the above criteria.

For a meaningful citation is is necessary to specify the "Place of Publcation" (URL in case of websites, i.e. "") and a "Publisher".

12. Can television contributions be submitted to ZORA?

Television and other audiovisual contributions can be recorded in ZORA as "Scientific Publication in Electronic Form" if they are published by a publisher or on a platform similar to a publisher (e.g. SRF archive).

13. Collection of textbooks and textbooks

Schoolbooks and textbooks can be entered as monographs. In addition, the fixed term schoolbook and textbook can be entered in the field Keywords (eng. Uncontrolled Keywords). Since the Academic Report 2016 there is no extra category for schoolbooks and textbooks. The entry of keywords is therefore no longer mandatory, but can still be used for specific queries.

14. Master thesis

Since July 2017, master theses can also be uploaded in ZORA.

Master's theses are accepted in ZORA under the following conditions:

  •     The content quality check has been successfully completed by the supervisor.
  •     Both the author and the supervisor have given their consent to publication.
  •     The author has the corresponding unrestricted rights to the master's thesis.
  •     The uploaded PDF corresponds to the peer-reviewed and, if necessary, improved final version. The PDF is freely accessible in ZORA.
  •     In justified exceptional cases, an embargo of up to 12 months can be specified in the "Upload" section. To do this, the reason must be given in the "Comments and notes" field under the "Details" step.
  •     Checking by plagiarism software and appropriate measures to avoid plagiarism have been taken:

Please note that master theses are NOT transferred to the academic report.